The SuperAnaerobicDigestorTM and/or
The SuperAnaerobicDigestionTM of Municipal Solid Wastes
Renewable Energy and Potable Water which enables the simultaneous massive production of
Renewable Electricity Energy and Free Potable Water.
Over the last 80 years, anaerobic digestion treatment throughout the world has been consistently viewed by researchers, practitioners, and end users alike, as a rather simple phenomenon of nature rather than a biochemical engineering process.
Historically Speaking, anaerobic digestion occurs naturally in some soils and in lake and oceanic basin sediments, where it is usually referred to as "anaerobic activity". This is the source of marsh gas methane as discovered by Volta in 1776.
The digestion process itself begins with bacterial hydrolysis of the input materials. Insoluble organic polymers, such as carbohydrates, are broken down to soluble derivatives that become available for other bacteria. Acidogenic bacteria then convert the sugars and amino acids into carbon dioxide, hydrogen, ammonia, and organic acids. These bacteria convert the resulting organic acids into acetic acid, along with additional ammonia, hydrogen, and carbon dioxide. Finally, methanogens convert these products to methane and carbon dioxide. The methanogenic Achaea populations play an indispensable role in anaerobic wastewater treatments.
The Institute of Gas Technology is a trade association of the natural gas industries. To its credit, it was the first marketplace entity to manage mesophilic anaerobic reactions as a biological process by successfully establishing the economic viability of two-phase anaerobic treatment.
WaterSmart Environmental, Inc. improved this step by adding:
- Fixed or attached growth media = captive bacteria population
- Thermophilic bacteria = 4 times the mesophilic metabolic rate
- Staged treatment in each phase = greater efficiency
- Nutrient addition in both phases = greater efficiency
- Flow recirculation in all phases and stages = greater efficiency
- pH and temperature control in all stages = greater efficiency
As a result, two-phase, two-stage, thermophilic, fixed growth, anaerobic digestion process:
- Accomplishes extremely high levels of treatment
- Is only half the cost of existing anaerobic treatment technologies
- Generates very pure methane gas and carbon dioxide gas as co-products
- Generates twice the methane gas as existing anaerobic digestion technologie
- Is only 10% the physical size of existing anaerobic treatment technologies
- Makes all aerobic and other anaerobic technologies obsolete.
- Is the dominant technology in municipal privatization
- Is the dominant biowastes to energy process
- Can be used to produce hydrogen gas, vinegar, and additional first-phase commodities
- Produces a positive return on investment
Anaerobic Digestion Process Benefits:
- Sludge qualifies as Class A Biosolids
- Reduced landfill disposal costs
- Reduced sludge hauling costs
- Reduced chemical conditioning costs
- No energy required for routine plant operation
- Excess energy generated for profit
- Greatly reduced (about 90%) land area required
- Elimination of effluent disinfection
- Greatly reduced (about 30%) plant acquisition costs
- Elimination of greenhouse gasses
- High quality carbon dioxide generated for beneficial use
- High quality methane gas generated for beneficial use
- No detectable odors
- Removal of Heavy Metals
- Removal of environmentally dangerous hydrogen sulfides by conversion to innocuous sulfates
Incineration of municipal solid wastes produces steam that, in turn, drives a steam turbine generator to produce electricity. Incineration is already preferred by the Government of Germany, the Government of Hong Kong, the Government of United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and additionally by the County Seat of the City and County of Honolulu located within the State of Hawaii. See http://www.covanta.com/en/sustainable-solutions/energy-from-waste.aspx
Incineration of municipal solid wastes represents extremely outdated technology. Modern technology consists of the anaerobic digestion of municipal solid wastes that produces over 1,000 times more electricity than incineration on a per pound of MSW managed basis!
WaterSmart Environmental, Inc. has been able to slowly develop the modern management of MSW over the last 20 years that yields over 1,000 times the marketplace benefits than those produced by incineration. The referenced modern management of Municipal Solid Wastes may be referred to as the SuperAnaerobicDigestorTM or SuperAnaerobicDigestionTM technology.
The directly produced marketplace co-products include:
- Carbon Dioxide Gas
- Methane Gas, and
- Potable Water (the average recoverable moisture content of MSW is 21.6% water moisture x 1,000 tons of MSW/day = 432,000 lbs of water produced/day. At 8.34 pounds/gallon, 432,000 lbs/8.34 pounds/gallon = 51,798 gallons of water are produced/day. When multiplied by 365 days/year, the annual production of water equals 51,798 gallons/day x 365 days/year = 18,906,474 gallons of water that can be recovered/year.
The recovered water would have to be processed by reverse osmosis (RO) treatment before being distributed to the marketplace. Reverse Osmosis treatment recovers more than 99% of the processed water. The 1% reject water would be beneficially used in the production of concrete that, in turn, will be used by BioWastePower Constructors, A Division of WaterSmart Environmental, Inc. in the subsequent construction of concrete greenhouses, concrete roadways, concrete distribution piping, concrete barges, concrete submarines, concrete ships, and concrete runways for airlines.
The indirectly produced marketplace co-products include:
- Renewable electricity green power,
- Biodiesel B100 (a direct replacement for petroleum diesel)
- Bio-Methanol (a direct replacement for gasoline),
- Liquefied Methane Gas (LMG) a direct replacement of compressed natural gas (CNG) and liquefied natural gas (LNG),
- Liquefied Nitrogen Gas (LN2)(LIN)or(LN),
- Liquefied Oxygen Gas (LOX)(LOx)or(Lox), and
- And free potable water(H2O).
The WaterSmart Environmental, Inc. SuperAnaerobicDigestionTM technology management of MSW yields many economic benefits. These benefits include:
- The production and marketplace distribution of inexpensive electricity at US$0.02/kWh plus government taxes,
- The production and marketplace distribution of inexpensive biodiesel biofuel at US$1.00/gallon plus government taxes,
- The production and marketplace distribution of inexpensive biomethanol biofuel at US$0.50/gallon plus government taxes,
- The production and marketplace distribution of inexpensive organic foods at US$3.00/meal plus government taxes,
- The production and marketplace distribution of inexpensive methane gas at US$1.00/1,000 cubic feet plus government taxes,
- The production and marketplace use of anaerobic digester produced carbon dioxide gas that produces both biodiesel and biomethanol,
- The production and marketplace distribution of free potable water,
- The manufacturing and marketing of extremely large inexpensive homes which are four stories high, with a modern kitchen that includes a large center island, two refrigerators, two freezers, two microwave ovens, two dishwashers, two water heaters, four color television sets, central air conditioning, two clothes dryers, five large bedrooms, two game rooms, four full sized bathrooms, five personal computers, and lastly, a massive three-car and one motor home garage, along with a 100% free WaterSmart Environmental, Inc. Planet Earth Internet Services. Twitter will be allowed as well as Chirp. Chirp is a future Planet Earth Social Services Network. The homes will use inexpensive methane gas (a far more economical cooking and heating gas than natural gas) and inexpensive electricity. The homes include solar panels that directly enable the greenhouse production of fresh live shrimp, fresh live tilapia, fresh organic fruits and vegetables,
- The manufacturing and marketing of inexpensive extreme mileage cars and trucks that use a ratio of 90% electrolyzer gas (2 parts hydrogen gas and 1 part oxygen gas) along with 10% biodiesel thereby achieving 800 and 700 miles/gallon, respectively. The extreme mileage is achieved by capturing the exhaust water vapor with a surface condenser (similar to a window air conditioner) and reusing it again and again (recycled internally) to produce extreme mileage. None of the almost now obsolete traditional motor fuels of #1 diesel, #2 diesel, ethanol, gasohol (90% gasoline + 10% ethanol), gasoline, kerosene, or dirty and dusty air will be permitted at any time whatsoever. See http://fuel-efficient-vehicles.org/energy-news/?page_id=908
- The near future manufacturing and marketing of inexpensive extreme mileage aircraft, aircraft carriers, boats, dune buggies, lawn mowers, motorcycles, ships, and submarines that use that also use a ratio of 90% electrolyzer gas (2 parts hydrogen gas and 1 part oxygen gas) and 10% biodiesel,
- Lawn Mowers, motorcycles, ships, and submarines also use a ratio of 90% electrolyzer gas (2 parts hydrogen gas and 1 part oxygen gas) and 10% biodiesel,
- The production and marketing of organic fertilizer,
- The production and marketing of liquid fertilizer concentrate,
- The production and marketing of ferrous metals, and
- The production and marketing of non-ferrous metals.
- The use of light and heavy rail transport systems designed and manufactured by Mr. Anatoly E. Unitsky of Russia.
Anatoly E. Unitsky,
General Designer of UST,
Doctor of Philosophy in Transportation
The SuperAnaerobicDigestionTM treatment of 1,000 tons of MSW/day produces 21.6 % water that represents the average moisture content of municipal solid water. 21.6% water moisture x 1,000 tons of MSW/day = 432,000 lbs of water produced/day. At 8.34 pounds/gallon, 432,000 lbs/8.34 pounds/gallon = 51,798 gallons of water are produced/day. When multiplied by 365 days/year, the annual production of water equals 51,798 gallons/day x 365 days/year =18,906,474 gallons of water/year. The referenced water must be processed through reverse osmosis treatment before distribution to either the marketplace or to the Ogallala Aquifer.
SuperAnaerobicDigestionTMtreatment of 1,000 tons of MSW/day produces a 60 MW combined cycle green electricity power generation facility, referred to as renewable energy that will be sold to the marketplace at US$0.02/kWh plus government taxes.
SuperAnaerobicDigestionTM treatment of 1,000 tons of MSW/day can also produce 3 million gallons of biodiesel biofuel/day, referred to as B100 (see http://www.biodiesel.org/what-is-biodiesel/biodiesel-fact-sheets). The biodiesel will be produced within a photobioreactor that uses Chlorella vulgaris microalgae. The Chlorella vulgaris microalgae will consume the carbon dioxide as a feed source from the adjacent anaerobic digester. The produced B100
Biodiesel will be sold to the marketplace at a price of US$1.00/gallon plus government taxes. For individual state motor fuel taxes, please click on the following link: http://www.api.org/oil-and-natural-gas-overview/industry-economics/~/media/Files/Statistics/StateMotorFuel_OnePagers.pdf
Anaerobic digestion treatment of 1,000 tons of MSW/day will also produce more than 3,000,000 gallons of bio-methanol/day, referred to as Bio-Methanol (see). BioMCN - producing sustainable feedstock for transport and chemical applications. Bio-Methanol is a perfect substitute for gasoline with the understanding that the motor vehicle's fuel pump Viton seal must be replaced with a free Buna-N seal. The Bio-Methanol will be sold to the marketplace at a price of US$1.00/gallon plus government taxes. Anaerobic digestion treatment of 1,000 tons of MSW/day will also produce 100 tons of carbon dioxide CO2/day that will be used internally to produce biodiesel and biomethanol that will be sold to the marketplace at US$0.10/pound plus government taxes. Anaerobic digestion treatment of 1,000 tons of MSW/day will also produce 200 tons of liquid fertilizer concentrate/day that will be used internally within the greenhouse and/or sold to the marketplace at US$0.25/fluid ounce plus government taxes.
The nearby Johnson County Landfill receives more than 1 million tons of MSW/year which equates to more than 2,700 tons of MSW/day. Each ton of MSW produces 0.24 tons of methane gas (CH4)/day through anaerobic digestion. 2,700 tons of MSW therefore produces 0.24 x 2,700 = 648 tons of methane gas (CH4)/day. 648 tons of (CH4/day) x 2,000 lbs/ton = 1,296,000 lbs CH4/day. Since the weight of methane gas = 0.0422 lbs/cubic foot, 1,296,000 lbs/cubic foot ÷ 0.0422 = 30,710,900 cubic feet of methane gas will be produced/day.
2005 Tip Fee Survey
Since 7,000 cubic feet of methane gas produce 1 MWh of electricity, 30,710,900 cubic feet of methane gas ÷ 7,000 cubic feet of methane gas/MWh = 4,387 MWh of combined cycle renewable energy/day can be produced from each ton of MSW. When converted into an annual power generation figure, it is 2.6 times the total electricity necessary to power the entire States of Iowa, Kansas, Nebraska, and Missouri! The renewable energy from the nearby Johnson County Landfill will be sold directly to the States of Iowa, Kansas, Nebraska, and Missouri at US$0.02/kWh plus government taxes. The States of Iowa, Kansas, Nebraska, and Missouri also comprise Region 7 of the United States Environmental Protection Agency.
Each ton of methane gas also produces 2.75 tons of water from the generation of electricity. 648 tons of methane gas/day x 365 days/year x 2.75 tons of water = 650,430 tons or x 2,000 lbs/ton = 1,300,860,000 billion gallons of water produced/year when converted into annual figure. With a daily requirement of
100 gallons/day/adult the supply of potable water equates to 1,300,860,000 ÷ 100 = 13,008,600 gallons/year or when divided by 365 days/year = 35,640 gallons/day. With a combined population of Iowa, Kansas, Nebraska, and Missouri = 15,000,000, the potable water available/person/day = 15,000,000 ÷ 35,640 = 420 gallons/day/person or 4.2 times the 100 GPD gallons/day/person potable water requirement. The excess (420 GPD/person minus 100 GPD/person) water = 320 Gallons/Day/person x 15,000,000 combined population of Iowa, Kansas, Nebraska, and Missouri = 4,800,000,000 Gallons/Day or x 365 days/year = 1.752 trillion gallons/year will be pumped to the thirsty Ogallala Aquifer in response to Governor Brownback's call to action for a 50 Year Vision to ensure the state's current and future supply needs are addressed and permanently solved.
If awarded the additional management of potable water, sanitary waste water, and stormwater, the yearly volume of potable water more than doubles to a fantastic 3.5 trillion gallons/year!!
Since 9% of MSW constitutes scrap metals (aluminum, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, gold, iron, lead, manganese, mercury, nickel, silver, steel, tin, and zinc), 2,700 tons MSW produce 0.09 x 2,700 = 243 tons of scrap metals/day. At an estimated minimum value of US$1.00/lb., 243 tons x 2000 lbs/ton = 486,000 lbs of scrap metals that are worth US$486,000.00/day or x 365 = US$177,390,000.00/year. See http://www.scrapregister.com/scrap-prices/united-states/260
Since 26% of MSW constitutes non-biodegradables/day, 2,700 tons MSW produce 0.26 x 2,700 = 702 tons of non-biodegradables/day. After mechanical crushing and grinding, this material will be used to produce the concrete that will be used to construct the project building itself, a multistory greenhouse power generation facility. The greenhouse will produce renewable energy electricity, biofuels, carbon dioxide gas, methane gas, and organic foods.
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Marketplace inquiries may be mailed to: Technical Director, WaterSmart Environmental, Inc., PO Box 26346, Shawnee Mission, KS 66225-6346
email inquiries may be sent to: email@example.com
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